Fruit and Nut
|Nut Trees from Fruit and Nut (offering the largest range of nut trees in Ireland)|
Pinenuts - new for 2017/18
Globally, there are about twenty-five species of pine that produce nuts large enough to be considered for human food. The different species are well scattered: from Mexico and the United States to the Mediterranean, Central Europe and Eastern Asia. Economically, the most important species are Pinus pinea (Mediterranean countries), Pinus siberica (Russia and Mongolia), Pinus koraiensis (Korea and China) , Pinus gerardiana (Pakistan and India) and Pinus cembroides (Mexico). Other important nut species include Pinus cembra (Central Europe), Pinus monophylla, Pinus edulis, Pinus sabiniana, Pinus torreyana and Pinus coulteri (all southwestern United States).
In Ireland , Pinus pinea is by far the most likely to produce regular crops of nuts. In coastal locations. Pinus torreyana has good potential while on more sheltered sites Pinus sabiniana, Pinus Coulteri and Pinus gerardiana are worth trying. The subalpine pines Pinus albicaulis, Pinus koraiensis and Pinus cembra also have good potential, but are very slow to come into production. Pinus pumila, the dwarf Siberian pine produces small nuts suitable for production of nut oil. In spite of its name, Pinus pumila grows quite quickly in Ireland, much faster than the subalpine pines listed above. All pinenut species are strongly outbreeding so single trees may not produce nuts. For best results plant 3-4 trees of the same species.
Pinus armandii, a pine species native to China, Bhutan and parts of Burma, is known to cause an unpleasant allergic reaction known as Pine Mouth (also called Pine Nut Syndrome). The main symptom is taste disturbance. Normally the symptoms last only a few days but in severe cases they can persist for weeks, occasionally months. Commercial pinenuts originating in Asia (including Eastern Russia) are sometimes adulterated with Pinus armandii. However, Pine Mouth has not been linked to any of the pine nut species listed above.
Pine trees are very adaptable. Of the 120 or so distinct species found worldwide, most would grow in Ireland. Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine), which is considered native to Ireland, is thought to have originated in Central Northern Asia. It's found in the wild state across a vast swathe of territory stretching from Scotland to within a hundred kilometres of the Pacific Ocean in Eastern Russia, and from the Arctic Ocean southwards as far as Turkey and Spain. Its territory encompasses an astonishing range of climates. On this evidence alone, any of the nut-bearing species of pine are worth a try.
Edible Pine Species
Pinus albicaulis, the Whitebark pine, is native to the mountains of Western Canada and Northwestern United States. It is closely related to the other subalpine stone pines, namely Pinus cembra, koraiensis, pumila and siberica. normally forms a low spreading tree, but in harsh conditions may develop as a prostrate mat. The nuts are quite large and flavoursome. Hardiness Zone 4. Available March 2019
Pinus cembra , the Arolla stone pine, is native to the Alps and Carpathians, where it grows at a higher altitude than any other conifer. It is a very tough tree, capable of thriving in barren stony soil. In its harsh native environment it can take decades to reach nut-bearing age but when cultivated the first nuts appear at about 15 years. Requires well-drained soil. Slow growing, eventually reaching ten to twenty metres. Hardiness Zone 5. For best results, plant more than one tree. In stock
Pinus cemboides , the Mexican pinyon, is native to the North Central Mexico and Southwest Texas, where it grows at an altitude of 1500-2600 metres. Closely related to Pinus edulis and Pinus monophylla (below). In Mexico, the nuts are an important crop. Nut-producing capability in Ireland uncertain. Requires very well-drained soil. Hardiness Zone 7. Available March 2019
Pinus coulteri , the Coulter pine, is native to coastal ranges of southern California and northwest Mexico. Closely related to Pinus sabiniana and Pinus torreyana. Known to be adaptable to colder climates and tolerant of high rainfall. Cold tolerant to -15°C. The Coulter pine makes a small tree with a broad crown. In its native environment it can eventually reach 15-20m, occasionally 25m. The cones are very large and can sometimes weigh 2kg. Nut-producing capability in Ireland uncertain. Hardiness Zone 7. Available March 2018
Pinus edulis , the Rocky Mountain pinyon, is native to Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico. Closely related to Pinus monophyla and Pinus cembroides. Grows in arid upland environments. Cold tolerant to -25°C. In the past, important food crop for indigenous peoples. It is a very tough and long-lived tree, capable of thriving in near-desert conditions and living for 750 years or more. Nut-producing capability in Ireland uncertain. Requires very well-drained soil. Hardiness Zone 8. Available March 2019
Pinus gerardiana , the Chilgoza pine, is native to Kashmir, Eastern Afghanistan, Baluchistan (Pakistan) and Southern Tibet where it grows at between 2000 and 3500 metres above sea level. In the regions where the indigenous forests prevail, the Chilgoza pinenuts are an important economic crop, but lack of regeneration from over-grazing, combined with over-harvesting and the cutting down of trees for fuel have put the tree at risk and it is now on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In its native environment, t he tree is slow growing, eventually reaching 10-20 metres.
The Chilgoza pine is likely to grow well in Ireland but will do best on well-drained sites. Nut-producing capability is unknown, but seems likely. Hardiness Zone 7. Available November 2017
Pinus koraiensis , the Korean stone pine, is native to Korea, Northern China, the Pacific coast of Russia, and Northern Japan. Closely related to Pinus siberica, but thought to be more adaptable to Irish conditions. It should produce the first nuts after about 15 years. Can tolerate a wide range of soils. Will grow into a large tree. Also valuable for timber. For best results, plant more than one tree. Hardiness Zone 3. Available November 2017
Pinus maximartinezii, the Large Martinez pine is an extremely rare pine found growing in only one location: at 1900-2200m on the slopes of a small mountain in Zacatas State in central Mexico. The locality experiences frost in winter. Pinus maximartinezii produces the largest nut of any pine species. The tree should grow well in sheltered coastal parts of Ireland especially within urban areas and possibly also in milder regions inland. Its ability to produce nuts in an Irish climate is uncertain. Worth considering as a novelty tree. Hardiness Zone 9b. Available March 2019
Pinus monophylla , the Single-leaf pinyon, is native to the southwestern United States and northwest Mexico, where it grows at an altitude of 1500-2600 metres. Closely related to Pinus edulis and Pinus monophylla. The tree is surprisingly adapatable, and large specimen trees can be found on favourable sites in the UK. Cold tolerant to -20°C. Nut-producing capability in Ireland uncertain. However, this species is the most promising of the three pinyons listed here. Requires very well-drained soil. Hardiness Zone 8. Available March 2018
Pinus pinea, the Medierranean stone pine, grows well in Ireland and will produce the first nuts after 8-10 years. It is a tough hardy tree, tolerant of frost to -15°C. It will grow in any well-drained soil. Very good in coastal locations. This is by far the best choice of pinenut tree for Ireland. Slow growing with spreading habit. Also valuable for fuel. For best results for nuts, plant a minimum of 3-4 trees. Hardiness Zone 8. In stock
Pinus pumila, the dwarf Siberian pine, is native to the Russian Pacific coast, Northern Japan and parts of Korea and China. Closely related to Pinus koraiensis and Pinus siberica. It forms a dwarf tree or large shrub, occasionally reaching six metres. Compared to other pinenuts, the nuts are very small. In Siberia and parts of Japan the nuts are harvested for their oil. Of the pinenut trees offered here, the most suitable for really tough situations. Very suited to mass-planting in harsh coastal or upland environments. Compared to its subalpine relatives, grows relatively quickly in Ireland and could be used for as a nurse tree for other low growing species. Hardiness Zone 5. In stock
Pinus sabiniana , the Digger pine, is native to the coastal ranges of California. Closely related to Pinus torreyana and Pinus coulteri. Formerly an important food crop for the indigenous Maidu tribes (Digger Indians). The Digger pine is a small tree, typically reaching about 15m in its native environment. It is adapatable to a wide range of climates and soils. Nut-producing capability in Ireland uncertain, but quite promising. Hardiness Zone 8. Available September 2017
Pinus siberica, the Siberian stone pine, is closely related to Pinus cembra, the Swiss Stone Pine, but produces larger nuts. It is a long-lived tree (c500 years) that in its native environment can grow to 30 metres. Although it has evolved to cope with the extreme temperature variations of Siberia and Mongolia, it appears quite comfortable in cool temperate climates. Known to be growing in coastal regions of some Baltic countries. Nut-producing capability in Ireland is unproven, but appears possible. Probably best on a cold upland site. The first cones should appear after about 15 years. Also valuable for timber and fuel. For best results plant more than one tree. Hardiness Zone 3. In stock
Pinus torreyana , the Soledad pine, is an extremely rare pine native to Santa Rosa island and several cliff sites in San Diego county, California. Closely related to Pinus sabiniana and Pinus coulteri. The Soledad pine is a small tree, rarely exceeding 15m. It is not very cold tolerant and will be damaged by temperatures below -6°C. In Ireland, only suitable for mild maritime environments. Nut-producing capability in Ireland unknown but in mild locations probably quite good . Hardiness Zone 9b. Available March 2018
Hickories and Hicans (NEW)
The hickories and pecans (Carya spp. ) are part of the Juglandaceae or walnut family. They are exclusively native to North America. While it is unlikely the pecan has any potential for nut production in Ireland, the hickory shows some promise. Mature trees can be found growing in some of Ireland's botanical gardens. There are about ten different hickory species, of which the Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) has shown the greatest potential for nut production. They will do best on dry warm sites.
Hicans (Carya illinoensis x ovata ) are a hybrid between the pican (Carya illinoensis ) and the Shagbark Hickory (Carya Ovata ). They combine the flavour of the pican and hardiness of the hickory. Hicans occur naturally in the wild in the eastern United states where both pecans and hickory occupy the same forests. Many distinct cultivars have been developed by growers, some of which have succeeded as far north as British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec provinces in Canada. Hicans are almost completely unknown in Europe. Although untested in Irish conditions, they have the potential to do well on warm dry sites.
The hickory and hican trees offered are not grown from nut but are propagated vegetively by grafting fruiting scions of known cultivars onto seedling pecan rootstocks.
Unlike trees raised from nut, which are unreliable in terms of nut production and quality, and take many years to reach nut bearing age, grafted trees always come true to form and begin cropping at a young age. In order to facilitate pollination, it is advisable to plant more than one cultivar. Hickories and hicans are mutually pollinating.
Hickories and hicans grow into big trees so should be spaced at 10-12 meters.
Grafted trees supplied at 30-45cm, 45-70cm, 70-100cm and 100-140cm sizes
Yoder. Produces large nut with excellent flavour. Nuts easily cracked.
Burton. The most well-known of the hicans. High quality nut with excellent flavour
Wescheke. Sometimes mistakenly listed as a hickory, Wescheke's distinctive pecan-shaped leaves confirm its parentage. It produces a medium sized nut of good flavour
Edible Oaks (NEW)
The oaks comprise a large genus of approximately 500 species of trees and shrubs, distributed across the northern hemisphere from tropical latitudes to cold temperate and sub-arctic regions. Throughout human history acorns have probably been eaten by indigenous people, and were highly prized by many hunter-gatherer cultures.
In North America, it is well documented that acorns were used as a staple food by indigenous people. Often, the annual acorn harvest was a major cultural event. In the Mediterranean regions of Europe and the Near East, acorns were also an important food. Dried and roasted, acorns can be used to make flour. The nutrient content of acorns is similar to that of chestnuts. Acorns contain varying amounts of tannin, which in high doses is detrimental to human health. Generally, the acorns most prized were those from the oak species with the lowest tannin content. The tannin content can be significantly reduced by soaking the acorns then draining off the water, repeating the process as many times as necessary.
Within Europe, two evergreen oaks, namely the Holm oak (Quercus ilex) and the Cork oak (Quercus suber), have a low tannin content and an agreeable taste. Both have been used as human food until recent times. In many Mediterranean countries - both European and North African - oak woods are still highly valued and are used for grazing pigs, sheep and cows. In many cases the same carefully-balanced system of woodland management and livestock grazing has been practiced for hundreds of years. The most well-known of these is the Spanish dehesas. In Portugal the evergreen oaklands are called montados, while the Moroccans use the word azaghar.
Indigenous woodlands of the Cork oak can be found throughout the western Mediterranean and also along the Atlantic seaboard of Spain and Portugal. The indigenous Holm oak is found mainly in the Western Mediterranean and Iberia, but its range extends east as far as Greece and northwards to western France. Both oaks have been cultivated much further north. They were introduced to England in the16th century. They are perfectly hardy in coastal regions of Ireland, but the both are vulnerable to severe frosts (especially the Cork oak). For this reason, the Cork oak is unsuitable for colder inland locations.
Winter minimum temperatures
The Cork oak is considered hardy to about minus 8 Celsius. Temperatures below this almost never occur in coastal areas, and would also be very rare in inland locations close to large bodies of water. The Holm oak is hardy to about minus 16 Celsius. Some specimens in Ireland were apparently killed by the unusually low temperatures of December 2010.
Holm Oak (Quercus ilex)
Cork Oak (Quercus suber )
Monkey Puzzle Tree (Araucaria araucana) New for 2016/17
The Monkey Puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana) is a coniferous tree sometimes known as the Araucarian or Chilean pine, although it is not actually a pine species. It is the hardiest member of the genus Araucaria, in the Araucariaceae family, the other members of which are found widely scattered in Oceania, northern Australia and parts of South America. The Monkey Puzzle is native to the south-central Andes, the main habitat region being situated at latitudes between 37.5 and 39.5ºS. It is found mainly on the Chilean side, typically above 1000m altitudes. The climate is mild temperate and annual rainfall is 1250-1750mm (occasionally 2000mm).
In their native habitat Monkey Puzzle trees can grow up to 48m high and live for over 1200 years. Mature trees produce large cones, each of which contains up to 200 nuts. The nuts are both tasty and nutritious and have been long prized as a food by indigenous peoples. Generally, trees begin to produce nuts at around 30-40 years. Popular as an ornamental tree, the Monkey Puzzle has been planted in many northern hemisphere countries and is found growing well as far north as 63ºN in western Norway. It will tolerate wet maritime climates, salt exposure, and winter temperatures down to minus 20 Ce
The trees are dioecious, meaning the male and female reproductive parts are on different trees. For reliable nut production, at least six trees should be planted.
Main Stock List
Baretooted maidens on St Julien A rootstock. Almonds require warm sunny walls in order to do well. They will do best in the drier parts of Ireland.
The trees offered are not grown from nut but are propagated vegetively by grafting fruiting scions of known cultivars onto seedling rootstocks.
Unlike trees raised from nut, which are unreliable in terms of nut production and quality, and take many years to reach nut bearing age, grafted trees always come true to form and begin cropping at a young age. In order to facilitate pollination, it is advisable to plant more than one cultivar, or plant alongside heartnuts.
Buartnuts grow into big trees so should be spaced at 10-12 meters.
Young grafted trees 30-45cm, 45-70cm, 70-100cm and 100-140cm
Two year old plants raised at our own nursery from selected seed from Ontario Province, Canada. Unlike the named cultivars of Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis, these seed-grown trees are unlikely to produce reliable crops of nuts. Vigorous and strong, they will grow into fine large specimen trees suitable for timber production. The trees may also be used for rootstock for grafting purposes. Available November
50-80cm €9.50 ea
We use the word 'cobnut' to cover all cultvated varieties of the hazelnut (including filberts). Please note that cobnuts are not self fertile, for success plant two or more different varieties. This will ensure good pollination. Trees available in sizes from 40-240cm.
Young barerooted trees 40-60 cm high. Only suitable for growing on for a further year before planting out in a final position. Minimum quantity 50 trees. Cultivars available: Cosford, Hall's Giant, Kentish Cob, Nottingham (Pearson's Prolific) and Webb's Prize. Available from February 2018
Two year barerooted trees 60-100cm high. Cultivars available: Cosford, Hall's Giant, Kentish Cob, Nottingham (Pearson's Prolific), Rotblatterige Zellernuss and Webb's Prize. Available from February 2018
Three year barerooted trees 100-140 cm high. Already nut bearing. Cultivars available: Cosford, Hall's Giant, and Nottingham (Pearson's Prolific). Available from November 2017
Three year barerooted trees 140-180 cm high. Already nut bearing. Cultivars available: Cosford, Hall's Giant, and Nottingham (Pearson's Prolific). Available from November 2017
Four year barerooted trees 100-140 cm high. Already nut bearing. Cultivars available: Cosford, Hall's Giant, and Nottingham (Pearson's Prolific). Available from November 2017
Four year barerooted trees 140-180 cm high. Already nut bearing. Cultivars available: Cosford, Hall's Giant, and Nottingham (Pearson's Prolific). Available from November 2017
Four year barerooted trees 180-220 cm high. Cultivars available: Cosford, Hall's Giant, and Nottingham (Pearson's Prolific). Available from November 2017
Extra Large barerooted trees 220 cm+ high. Cultivars available: Cosford, Gunslebert and Hall's Giant. Available from November 2017. Trees too big to be shipped, collection only
Dutch EMOA 1
Fertile de Coutard (syn. Barcelona)
Lange Tidling Zeller
Longue de Espagne
Nottingham (Pearson's Prolific)
Webb's Prize Cob
Four different sizes of barerooted trees are available: 40-70cm, 70-100cm,100-140cm and 140-180cm. The larger trees will generally begin cropping earlier.
The trees are propagated by stooling or grafting,and unlike seed-grown trees will always come true to variety. Seed-grown trees are generally unreliable for nut production (see further information below).
Bouche de Bétizac
There is a very high demand for named varieties of chestnut. Supply from outside Ireland is restricted owing to (very justifiable) concerns about the spread of chestnut blight and chestnut gall wasp. It is advisable to order as early as possible.
Sweet Chestnut Seedlings
Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut
The seedlings have been raised at our own nursery from seed originating in England. Unlike the named cultivars of Castanea sativa, these seed-grown trees are very unlikely to produce good crops of nuts. However they will grow into fine large specimen trees suitable for fuel, stakes or posts or timber production. They may also be used for grafting purposes. Supplied as 3yr trees 100-140cm. Available November 2017. Further details here
Castanea crenata x sativa - Sweet Chestnut hybrids
These have been raised at our own nursery from seed originating in England. They are the seed of trees regarded as stable hybrids between the European and Japanese chestnut. Like the seed grown trees of Castanea sativa, listed above, these trees are unlikely to produce crops of nuts comparable to trees propagated from named varieties by vegetative means.Neverthless. the seed will carry some good nut bearing characteristics.
Most Castanea crenata x sativa hybrids are more vigorous and more disease resistant than C.sativa, and are generally a better choice than C.sativa for use as rootstocks for named cultivars. Supplied as 3yr trees 100-140cm. Available November 2017. Further details here
The trees offered are not grown from nut but are propagated vegetively by grafting fruiting scions of known cultivars onto seedling rootstocks. The cultivars all originate in Canada or the northern parts of United States.
Unlike trees raised from nut, which are unreliable in terms of nut production and quality, and take many years to reach nut bearing age, grafted trees always come true to form and begin cropping at a young age. The trees are generally not self-fertile so more than one cultivar should be planted.
Heartnuts grow into big trees so should be spaced at 10-12 meters.
Young grafted trees 30-45cm, 45-70cm, 70-100cm,100-140cm and 140-180cm
Supply of heartnuts is limited. All varieties listed as being available 2017/18 will sell out
Two year old plants raised at our own nursery from selected seed from Ontario Province, Canada. Unlike the named cultivars of Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis, these seed-grown trees are unlikely to produce reliable crops of nuts. Vigorous and strong, they will grow into fine large specimen trees suitable for timber production. The trees may also be used for rootstock for grafting purposes.
50-80cm €9.50 ea. Available November
The trees offered are not grown from nut but are propagated vegetively by grafting fruiting scions of known cultivars onto seedling rootstocks.
Unlike trees raised from nut, which are unreliable in terms of nut production and quality, grafted trees always come true to form. In order to facilitate pollination, it is advisable to plant more than one cultivar.
Walnuts grow into big trees so should be spaced at 10-12 meters.
Barerooted trees on J.Regia rootstock:
Five different sizes of barerooted trees are available: 44-70cm, 70-100cm,100-140cm, 140-180cm and 180cm+. The larger trees are older and will generally begin cropping earlier. However, planting small can allow better root development.
Corne du Perigord
Excelsior of Taynton
Minimultiflora nr. 14
Ronde de Montignac
Unless stated, all varieties listed are available 2017/18
Two year old Juglans regia (common European or Persian walnut) from selected seed from Central Europe. Unlike the named cultivars of Juglans regia, these seed-grown trees are unlikely to produce reliable crops of nuts but will grow into fine specimen trees suitable for timber production. The trees may also be used for rootstock for grafting purposes. Minimum quantity 10 trees.
80-100 cm 10-49 trees €2.80 ea , 50-199 trees €2.20 ea 200+ trees €2 ea
The ginkgo tree, Ginkgo biloba, is the sole member of the ginkgo genus, and the only surviving member of the ancient ginkgoaceae family, whose ancestor’s fossilised remains have been found in many parts of the world (including Europe). The oldest remains date back around 200 million years to the early Jurassic period. The tree was generally thought to be extinct but in the seventeenth century a large tree was discovered in a botanical garden in Japan. Ginkgo trees were later found growing wild in several localities of the Zhejiang province in eastern China, where the tree had long been cultivated by Buddhist monks.
The trees are dioecious, meaning the male and female reproductive parts are on different trees. Male trees are often grown for their ornamental value. The ginkgo nut, which forms on the female trees, is surrounded by a fleshy outer layer (which has been variously described as smelling like rancid butter or decomposing flesh). However, in localities where the ginkgo tree grows, the nut is highly prized.
Ginkgo grows into a big tree, reaching 30 metres or more in its native habitat. It is shade intolerant and requires an open sunny position
Young grafted trees (50-80cm high)
Eastern Star A new cultivar from China, noted for its productivity and ability to begin cropping at a young age
Geisha A recent cultivar from Japan. Produces heavy crops of large, richly-flavoured nuts. Spreading, drooping habit
Long March Upright growing variety recently developed in China. Highly productive with large, tasty nuts.
Saratoga Good pollinator for the female varieties listed above and also valuable makes an attractive ornamental tree. Vivid yellow foliage in the autumn.
grafted trees not available 2017/18
Seed-grown trees, random mix of male and females. Very ornamental. Available November